INSPIRE INSpiring Pressure gain combustion Integration, Research, and Education

Project structure

The research activities of the 15 ESRs is organized into 4 technical Work Packages.

WP2 – Constant Volume Combustion.

Leader: ENSMA (Prof. M. Bellenoue)

Objectives: Combined numerical and experimental work will be dedicated to exploring the coupling of elementary physical processes involved in Piston-less CVC. Experimental tests will be performed on an industrial combustion chamber equipped with the associated intake and exhaust systems and will highlight the driving phenomena, which will be studied in detail with massively parallel combustion LES simulations and full optical access canonical combustion setup at ENSMA. The ignition phase is also a key element of such cyclic combustion processes and will be studied in detail to guide the solution for optimisation of the SAFRAN CVC combustion cycle.

Description of Work and Role of Partners:

T2.1 – [SAFRAN]: Safran will provide a detailed database with measurements of the performance of an industrial CVC combustion chamber and its influence on the thermodynamic parameters upstream and downstream of the chamber. Associated PhD: ESR2

T2.2 – [ENSMA] ENSMA will provide a detailed database with optical measurements of flow velocity field and flame propagation in canonical CVC chamber, including the respective influence of scavenging and RBG dilution. Associated PhD: ESR1

T2.3 – [CERFACS] CERFACS will provide LES of CVC experiments of ESR1 and ESR2 including the systems used to ensure constant volume combustion (valves usually) allowing a detailed understanding of the reacting flow in a CVC configuration. Associated PhD: ESR3 and ESR1,ESR2,ESR4

T2.4 – [ENSMA] Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) determination under the influence of flow velocity and RBG dilution. Associated PhD: ESR4


WP3 – Rotating Detonation Combustion

Leader: TUB (Prof. C. O. Paschereit)

Objectives: Combined numerical and experimental work will investigate the currently identified challenges to the adoption of the RDC technology. Numerical studies will focus on investigating the coupling between the combustor and the turbine through a fully coupled LES simulation. Additionally, the outlet conditions from this simulation will be used as boundary conditions for aero-acoustic simulations focused on assessing and minimizing the combustion and aerodynamically generated noise. Experimental measurements will characterize the combustion, wave speeds, and pressure gain with integrated turbine while also providing validation for the numerical studies.

Description of Work and Role of Partners:

T3.1 – [CERFACS, TUB] CERFACS will provide a massively parallel combustion LES code which will be used for RDC flows with and without turbine. Associated PhD: ESR6, ESR8, ESR5

T3.2 – [KTH, TUB] computational aeroacoustics calculations of the RDC exhaust plume and radiated noise will be carried out for relevant operating conditions. Noise suppression technologies at the RDC outlet nozzle are to be considered and analysed by means of LES and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy. ESR6 and ESR7 will provide data to be used as boundary conditions for validation purposes. Associated PhD: ESR8, ESR7, ESR6

T3.3 – [TUB, UC] experiments will focus on the impact of the wave direction, through the measurement of total pressure loss, for different guide vane orientations and designs. Experimental designs for implementing a preferable wave direction will be developed and integrated. Associated PhD: ESR5, ESR8

T3.4 – [TUB, CERFACS, KTH] validation experiments for T3.1 and T3.2 will be conducted in the experimental RDC combustor. Measurements of combustor pressures, wave speeds, directions, and operating mode will be compared with the LES simulations. Outlet geometries for suppression of aerodynamic generated noise will be integrated in the combustor; data to be compared with predicted values. Associated PhD: ESR6, ESR8

T3.5 – [UNIFI, TUB] experimental validation experiments for ESR10 will investigate the performance of innovative cold side convective cooling in the RDC. Associated PhD: ESR10, ESR11


WP4 – Enabling Technologies

Leader: UNIFI (Prof. B. Facchini)

Objectives: To investigate several aspects related to the integration of PGC concepts in real engines. The update of chemical kinetics data at high pressure conditions for the investigation of DDT will be studied. Issues related to turbine integration of RDC and CVC solutions will be analysed in order to optimize unsteady aerodynamic interaction. The definition of optimal cooling concepts for both combustor liners and NGV will also be pursued.

Description of Work and Role of Partners:

T4.1 – [TUB, ENSMA] Investigation of the ignition delay times in the presence of exhaust gas components at technically relevant pressures using the available high-pressure shock tube by TUB. The validity of available chemical-kinetic models will be verified using the new data, and fuels and mechanisms will be chosen for the numerical investigation of the detonation initiation in a zone of increased reactivity. Associated PhD: ESR9

T4.2 – [TUB, ENSMA] One-dimensional numerical investigation of the detonation initiation in a zone of increased reactivity caused by end-gas compression through flame propagation. Associated PhD: ESR9

T4.3 – [TUB, ENSMA] Deflagration-autoignition-detonation transition will be investigated for the selected fuels, considering different temperature gradients, in the lab facility of ENSMA. Associated PhD: ESR9

T4.4 – [UNIFI] The current state of the art, in terms of conventional internal cooling systems and allowable temperature levels for not film-cooled parts, will be analysed. Based on the outcome of the literature survey, different cooling concepts for both combustor and NGV cooling (achievable with innovative manufacturing techniques) will be investigated and characterized in terms of internal heat transfer and resulting overall effectiveness. Novel methodologies, as Adjoint Methods will be exploited to draw out an optimized solution. Associated ESRs: 10, 11

T4.5 – [UNIFI] Experimentally characterize the heat transfer behaviour of the newly designed hot gas path components operating in pulsating conditions. A new test rig, for testing of cooled liner models, will be developed and operated in non-reactive and scaled conditions. The test rig will have to both allow for the measurement of the internal heat transfer coefficient optimized solution developed in T4.4 and to characterize its resulting overall effectiveness. Associated PhD: ESR10, ESR11

T4.6 – [POLITO] The current state of the art in terms of coupling between PGCs and HPT stages will be analysed. The most appropriate HPT stage will be selected among the ones available in the consortium. The selected stage will be studied using CFD as if it was directly coupled with the CVC using scaled unsteady boundary conditions. Associated PhD: ESR12

T4.7 – [POLITO] The exhaust section of the CVC will be designed using CFD to couple it with the HPT stage geometry. The latter will be analysed using scaled unsteady boundary conditions from the exhaust. A fully-coupled analysis of CVC/HPT will be performed using CFD to complete the interaction analysis. Associated PhD: ESR3, ESR10, ESR12


WP5 – Overall System Performance

Leader: UNIGE (Prof. A. Traverso)

Objectives:  To identify the most promising layout options for PGC CC. To investigate the impact of blade cooling solutions on PGC GT simple cycles. To study and optimise PGC CC on-design thermo-economic performance. To analyse the effect of gas dynamic cross-interference on cycle performance and identify possible operational instabilities due to das dynamic phenomena. To identify the largest sources of availability destruction in the PGC cycles and propose means to minimize it. Develop a part-load performance model and a reduced order dynamic model of a PGC simple cycle gas turbine, including identification of operational limitations.

Description of Work and Role of Partners:

T5.1 – [UNIGE, CERFACS, TUB, UNIFI] PGC power plant analysis and cycle thermo-economic optimisation. ESR13 will gather from all partners information to be integrated in developing this task. Associated PhD: ESR13, ESR14, ESR10

T5.2 – [UNIGE, CERFACS, TUB] PGC propulsion application with part load and dynamic analysis ESR14 will develop this task. Associated PhD: ESR14, ESR13, ESR15

T5.3 – [TUB] Development of the highly dynamic gas turbine model, based on the 1-D Euler equations. ESR15 will carry out this task and perform the subsequent studies by applying the resulting model. Associated PhD: ESR15,ESR13, ESR14


ESR1: Constant volume combustion and its reduced order model - ENSMA (FR), Supervisor: Prof. M. Bellenoue
ESR2: Experimental investigation of an industrial constant volume combustion system - SAFRAN Tech (FR), Supervisors: Dr D. Mejia
ESR3: Simulation of CVC combustor - CERFACS (FR), Supervisors: Prof. T. Poinsot)
ESR4: Experimental characterization of ignition events in CVC like conditions - ENSMA (FR), Supervisor: Prof. J. Sotton
ESR5: Control and impact of RDC wave direction - TUB (DE), Supervisors: Prof. M. Bohon and Prof. C. O. Paschereit
ESR6: LES of flow and combustion in a rotating detonation engine coupled to a turbine - CERFACS (FR), Supervisor: Prof. T. Poinsot
ESR7: Experimental investigation of rotating detonation combustors including ignition processes and turbine-integration effects - TUB (DE), Supervisors: Prof. M. Bohon and Prof. C. O. Paschereit
ESR8: Computational aeroacoustics of the exhaust flow for noise assessment and control - KTH (SE), Supervisor: Prof. M. Mihaescu
ESR9: Deflagration-Autoignition-Detonation transition - TUB (DE), Supervisor: Prof. N. Djordjevic
ESR10: Numerical modelling and optimization of cooling solutions for PGC concepts - UNIFI (IT), Supervisor: Prof. A. Andreini
ESR11: Experimental study of cooling solutions for PGC concepts - UNIFI (IT), Supervisor: Prof. B. Facchin
ESR12: Unsteady numerical simulation of the interaction between pressure-gain combustors and high-pressure turbine stages - POLITO (IT), Supervisors: Prof. D. A. Misul and Dr. S. Salvadori
ESR13: PGC power plant analysis and cycle thermo-economic optimization - UNIGE (IT), Supervisor: Prof. A. Sorce
ESR14: PGC propulsion application with part load and dynamic analysis - UNIGE (IT), Supervisor: Prof. A. Traverso)
ESR15: Full gas dynamic and exergetic analysis of PGC cycles with rotating detonations - TUB (DE), Supervisor: Prof. P. Stathopoulos